Let's start with what kind of acids are :)
АНА (α-hydroxy acids) are the most popular in care cosmetics. They affect the skin at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels. The most common fruit acids are: glycolic, citric, tartaric, lactic, malic.
When applied to the skin, fruit acids have a gentle anti-inflammatory, moisturizing and antioxidant effect. What is no less important, ANA acids also stimulate the production of collagen, due to which the skin becomes more elastic and elastic.
Due to the fact that fruit acids remove the upper keratinized layer of cells, cells are renewed, which is why such a component in the product is an excellent helper in the fight against pigmentation and postacne marks.
The effectiveness of the product depends on the concentration of acids: the higher the %, the stronger the acids irritate the skin and affect it. You should also not forget about the pH of the care product: the lower the hydrogen index, the stronger the effect on the skin. The optimal pH for acids is from 3 to 4, ideally up to 3.5. If the hydrogen index is higher than 4, the acids stop exfoliating and act as moisturizers — they bind water.
Usually, cosmetics contain from 1% to 15% of acids in the composition. If you only introduce such components into your care, it is better to start with low indicators, but if you are an experienced acid user, you can choose products with a concentration higher than 7%.
Pregnant women and during breastfeeding should not get carried away and use ANA acids in a concentration higher than 10%.
ВНА (beta hydroxy acids) - there is one and only, everyone's favorite salicylic acid.
Unlike alpha hydroxy acids, salicylic acid is fat-soluble, so it penetrates deeper. Due to its properties, BHA acid is an excellent component for dissolving sebaceous plugs. For owners of oily, combination and problematic skin, this component is indispensable, as salicylic acid has an excellent anti-inflammatory, exfoliating effect, and also reduces sebum production.
The acidity level of the pH of the BHA solution should be from 3 to 4 (optimally 3), and if it is more than 4, the effectiveness of the product decreases.
Pregnant women and during breastfeeding, we recommend excluding this component from your diet.
РНА (polyhydric acids) - their properties are similar to fruit acids, but they affect the skin more delicately. They also stimulate tissue regeneration, exfoliate the dead layer of the epidermis, remove pigmentation, even out the relief and improve skin color. It is also worth noting that РНА acid trains the walls of blood vessels, so owners of skin with couperosis should pay attention to this component when choosing cosmetics.
It is important to know that acids remove the top layer of dead cells, so the sensitivity of the skin to the sun increases. Do not neglect products with SPF protection to avoid pigmentation and sunburn. If you use the above acids in your skin care, the sun protection should not be lower than SPF30.
The issue of the use of acids in summer care can also be included here: you can, but be careful. The main thing is not to forget to use SPF protection, closer to SPF50 in the summer.
We hope we have shed some light on AHA, BHA and PHA acids in your skincare. We will be happy to answer your questions in the comments :)